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1 CURRICULUM VITAE OF f"'lanuel E. VENTURA ROBLES t.ijanuei E. Ventura Robles Wi;1S born in SCJn Jose, Costa P.icc, f)/1 June 16, He completed his primary and sercndary school studies at the La Salle School and graduated.,vith a secondary education certificate in science :Jnd humanitil?s. In 1974, he obtained his licentiate in lav..and his license to practice as a Public Notary from the Faculty of Lgl.".' of the University of Costa Rica. Laler that yeer he became a membel- of the Costa R.ican Bar Association. He is muried to Glona ROdriguez ChzlVez, and they have three sons. jv'lanuel E. Ventura Robles.."ho is currently Judge of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, elected for i'i six-years period, since 1 January 2004, for the $tcjtes Parties in the American Convention on Human rights during its Thirty-third Regular Session of tile General Assembly of the 0.1\5, has held various positions in the private sector and In public administr-ation, and also in the Costa Rican Foreign Service in tile Embassy of Costa Rica in Washington, D.C and in the Permanent f'tlissioli of Costa Rica to tile Organization of.a.merican States (OI_S). Previously, he had rleld the position of Secretary from 1989 to He has gi\-ien courses on the theory of the Stale in Faculty of La",,;,of Ul~ University or Costa Rica and has been an invited professor at the Autonomous Central American University (UACA) and al the National,~s$ociation for Economic Promotion (A1~FE). He has been a guest speaker at vuious human rights institutions, non-governmental organlzauons and other international organizal!ons. He has also been a guest speaker at University of Navarre, Pamplcna, Spain; PontHlca! Catholic University of Chile; Fa :uily of Law, University of Chile; Catholic Unive.srty of Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador; the Institute for Juridical Res.;;lrch of the Autonomous University of ~,1exico (UNAr-1); LJni\lersity of SeviJia; Colurnbla University, New York; PontiFical JaveriarJCJ Uni.. 'ersity, Santare de Bogota, Colombia; the DePaul Univers!t'l College of Law in Chicago, Winois; Center for Justice and International Law (CEJIL); United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights; University of OttCJ1Na; Supreme Court of Justice of the PrQvince of Buenos Aires, f..rgentina; Costariean Institute of Constttutional Law; SuperIor Tribunal of Justice or Brazil; National!-\utonomQus University of r 1exico (UNAt"l); University of El Salvador; University Jose i"latias Delgado, t:;l Salvador; University Alcala de Henares, Spain; International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC); Portuguese-Spanish-Americ:an- Plli1ippine international Law Institute; Constitutional O~amber of the Supreme Court of Justice of Cosla Rica; Supreme Court of Juslice of the Dominican P-epublic; Supreme Court of EI Salvador; Imer-American Institute of Human Rights (IIHR) and the Inter-.A.merican Juridical Commiltee. He has taken p3rt in various national and international seminar$ on topics related to human nghts and the inter-,ll,merican system for the proteclionof human rights. In the course of his responsibilities, Ile has attended the Fourteenth, Nineteenth, Twentieth, TVlent;y-first, l\.venty-second, T'Nenty-third, Tvventy-fourth, T... venty~fifth, Tv.;enty-stxth, Twenty-seventh, Twentyeighth, Twenty'-ninth, Thirtieth, Thirty-first, Thirty-second ~nd Thirty-third Re9ular Sessions of the General Assembly of the OAS. He IS a member of the International Law Association and the American Society of rnternational Lav,, (ASIL); member of the Portuguese, Spanish.. J\merican and PhilippinE: International LoW Institute; member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of tile Brazilian Institute of Human Rights; Hone-rary member Df the Costa RiG:!" AssociQtion of international Lav,,' (ACaD!); Founder member of the Intel-Am~rican Foundation for the Clinic Jnvestigatlon; and member ex oficio of tilt Gener2:! Assembly of the Inter-American Institute of Human P'ights.

2 Vieja y Nueva PoHtica rold politics and new pohucs] A political essay with a limited circulation. Algunos Aspectos de la Representacion PoHtica Legislativa en Costa Rica [Some aspects of political representation in the Costa Rican Legi5IaturC!:] Thesis for tt1e licentfate in law of the Faculty of law of the University of Costa Rka. "Discriminacion Geograftca en la Elecci6n de Dlputados" [Geographical discrimination in tf?e election of deputies). Articfe published in!:.95}latq" cultural supplement of the newspaper,. Excelsior, on September 7, 1975, p. 6. "Costa Rica y la Corte 1nteran1ericanade Den::chos Humanos" [Cost! Rica and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights] A.rticle published in: La Nadon Internacional, edition No. 80 for the week of June 16 to p. 11. Revista Judicial, Supreme Court of Justice, San Jo~e, Costa Rica. Year VIII, No. 27. December 1983, pp La Representacion PoHtica [Political represemauonj Editorial Juricentro. San Jose.. Cost~ Rica. Presentation of the study: Neutralidad y No Intervenci6n [Neutrality and nonintervention} by Hector Gras EspreH Tnter-American Institute of f1uman Rights. San Jose, Costa Rica. "Et Proyecto de Estatuto de fa Corte Interamerican.a de Derechos Humanos de 1979" [Tl1e draft Statute of the lnter~amenc(]n Court of Human R.ights} In La Corte Interamerlcal1a de Detechos Humanos: Estudios y Oocumentos Inter AmericQr1 Institute of Human Rights. San Jose, Costa Rica, Also in: 2nd. ed. San Jose, C.R.: Corte interanlericana de Derechos HumanoS, Union Europea, pp "Colte interamericana de Derechos Humanos. Oplfliones y ResoluClones. 1983" [Intei~P'tmerican Court of Human l?ights. Opinions and decisions. 1983J. Revista de Derecho Publico, (Venezuela), Wl 22,. pp , April - Junt! "Corte rnteramerkana de Derechos Hurnanos. Opiniones y Resoluciones. 1984" [1nt r~arnerican Court of Human Right!'>. Opiniol1S and decisions. 1984]. Revista de Derecho Publico, (Venezueia), N 25, pp , ]ch1uarf - f 'arch 1986.

3 [Inrer-Arnerican Cuurt of.'-iurnan Righ[:::-. Op-jnions 2nd decisions. 1985]. Revista de Derecho Publico, (Venezuela), W' 28, pp , October - Dec2:n-,ber i986. "Corte- [nteramer1cana de Derechos Hurnanos. Oplnlones y Reso!uciones. 1986" [Imc,,' Atnerican Court of Human Rights. O,Dinions and decisions. 1986}. Revista de Derecho Publico, (Venezuela), N~ 32, pp , October - Decernl)er :!.987. Vet t 'fa Robles, t"lanuel E. and ZOvalto G., Daniel. "La naturaleza de ia funci6n consultiva de la Corte Interamer1cana de Derechos Humanos" [The natu,e or the advisory function of [he jnter-amettcan Court of Human Rights]. Revista I.I.D.H., N 7: 159 -J97, January - June "Corte int,=r(lit).i2tic~na de Derechos Humanos. Opiniones y Reso!uciones. 1983,1984, 1985" [lnter-an7erican Court of Huma.n Rights. Opinio/1s and decisions. 1983, 1984, 1985]. Revista Judicial, Supreme Court of Justice, San Jose, Costa Rica. Year XII, N 43. Pp , June "]urisprudencia internacional: Corte!nter;:lmer!cana de Derechos Humanos: 0pln/ones y resolu(;iones 1986" {lntemational jurisprudence: Inter-American Court of h'uman FUgl1tS. Opinions and decisions. 1986]. Revista Judicial (C.R.). 12 (44): 83-91, September Ve, tun: Robles,,"1anuel E. and lqvatto G., DanieL "Corte lnteramaricana de Derecho5 Humanos: Garantias juchciales de los derechos humanos en estados de emergencia" [Inter'-American Court of Human F<.ights: judicial guarantees of human rights during states of emergency]. Revista de Derecho Publico (Venezuela), N 36: , October December Ventura Robies, r"ianuel E. and Zovatto G., Daniel. La funci6n consurtiva de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos: Naturaleza y pl'incipios r [The advisory function of the Inter-American Court' of Human Rights. Nature and pn'"ciples, J. 1. ed. PrologUe by Hector Gros Espial!. San Jose; Inter-American Institute of Human Rights; r' 1adrid: Editorial CiVitas, pp. "]urispruoencia internacional: Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos: Sentencias y opiniones consultivas" [International jurisprudence: Inter-American COUlt of Human Rights: judgments and advisory opinions]. Revista Judicial (C.R.), 13 (46): < Ju. e "La Coo'lencl6n Americana 50bre Derecho5 Humano-s y su vigencia en America Latina" [The American Convention on Human Rights and its implementation in LaUn Americe}. Revlsta de Ciencias Juridicas (C.R.), N 64: 89-94, September - December "La protecci6n internacianal de los derechos humanos en,t..rnerica u [The intetnetiona( protection or human rights in the AmeriCaS]. PUNTOS. (EJ Salvador) 1 (11): S, 15.A.pril Presentation of the book "La Convenci6n Americana sobre Derechos Humanos y 105 votos de la Sala Constitucional de Costa Rica" [The Americdn Convt?ntion on.hvrnan Rights and the decisions of the ConsUtutjonaJ Chamber of Costa eic~j. b'i Uc. HermeS Navarro del Valle. "Los articulos 50 y Sl de la Convend6n Americana sobre DErechos Humanos" [Aiticfes 50 and 51 of Uie Arnerican Convention on.l-furnan Rights}. i.: Nieto Navrd,

4 R.afcH?I, Editor. rn: La Corte y el Sistema Interamericanos de Derechos Humanos [The Inter-American Court and system or human rights]. San Jose, C. R.; Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Pp hel valor de la dedaraci6n universal de 105 dc:rechos hurnanos" [The significance of the universal dee/marion of human rights] in: Trindade, P.,ntonio Augusto Canr;:ado, Ed. in: The Modern World of Human Rights-EI mundo moderno de los derechos humanos: Essays in Honour of Thomas BLJergenthal/Ensayos en Honor de Thomas Buergenthal. San jose, C. R.: fnter-american Institute of Human Rights, Pp Ventura Roble.s, ~1anuel E. Sistematizadon de la jurisprudencia contenciosa de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos - Systematization of the Contentious Jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human R.ights, /f'<'ianuei E. Ventl,Jra Robles... (et al.]" Presented by Hector Fix-Zamudlo- San Jose, C. R.: lnter-.t,merican Court of Human Rights, ''EI Desistimiento y el t>..tlanailliento de la Junsprudencia en la Corte lnteramericana de Derecl,os Humanos" [Discontinuance and acquiescence in the Jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court ot' Human R.ights]. In Hector Gros Espiell, Amicorum Liber. Persona Humana y Derecho Internacional. Emile 51'uylant, S. A., Brussels, Belgium,. 1997, "La Corte interarnericana de Deree-has Humanos". Informativo Academico del Instituto Superior de Ciencias Policiales de Carabineros de Chile [Inter- American Court of,'-fur,jon Rights. ACademic buuc~in of the Nigher Institute of Police Science o! the Chilean Police Force], 12 (31): 22-29, "Contribucion del Juez Hector Fix-Zamudio a la e'lo!ucton institucional de la Corte interamericana de Derechos Humanos durante 105 anos " [Contribution of Judge Hector Fix~Zamudio to the institutional de'/efopment of the [Mer-American Court of N(.wrwn Rights], In Libel' Amicorum, Hector Fix~Zamudio. SClIt Jose. Costa Rica:!nter American Court of Human Rights, vol. I. pp. UB-LXVfI. Also published in: Revista Judicial (Costa Rica, vol. 23 (77): I v 1arch , "EI deslstimiento y el allanamiento en la jurisprudencia de Ie Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos",; [Discontirwance ana' acquiescence in the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights]. In: Bertolini, Anarella y Fernandez, Herbert,. eels, La jurisdicci6n col1stitucional y su influencia en el estado de derecho [The constitutional jurisdiction and its influence in the rde of law]. Led. San Jose, C.R.: UNEO, Tomo 1.: pp 'La Conveoci6n Amerrcana sobre Dc:rccho5 HumJnos" [The American Convention on Numan Rights). In: Fix-ZamUdio, Hector, Coordmator. Mexico y las Declaraciones de Derechos Humanos [Mexico and the humi;jh rfg!jts declarations}. i>1exico: Corte Interemericano de Derechos HumarlOs, Universidad Nacional Aut6norna de Mexico, Pp "Interrogantes Decisivas" {Decisive is5uesj. in: La Nadon (Costa Rica). Sunday, NQvember 2.1) 1999, p. 15A. "La evolucl0n institucional de I", Corte lnteran1 ricana de Derechos HUlnanO$ durantelos anos " [T"e,i;'5ritut;o'-r21 development or [he Inter-Ametfcan Court of

5 Humai, RigllLS (rom 1987 to 1997j. In Persona y Derecho. Servicio de Publicciciones, Un.versidad de Navarre. Parnpiona, Spain, vol , up, "EI des;stlmiento y e! ali?narnlento en ta jurisprudencia de la Corte Interarnericar)G de DcreeJ)()s Hurnanos ft {[Jiscontinu2nce arid acquiescence in [}r1sprli::.lence or the:!!nter-arnerican Court of' HurT/an Rights]. In: ILSA Journal of International And Comparative law, Vo!urne 5, Surnmer 1999, "Jurr,bt:!r 3, pp 'EI futuro de!a Corte Tr.terame,ic8na de. D~rechos Humanos" (The (uturf! of the lnrer...anlerican Court or Hurnan l:;:ighrs]. In: Ruptura, P.evfsta.!\.nU2-f de la ;\soclicion EscuelOj de Derecho, No. 43: 47-71, 2000, Quito, Ecuador. Also published in t'no palts in: Nundo Dip!omatico (Costa P;ica), 3 (18): lo-p, (-1al'"ch-l\pnl, 2001 and 3 (19): 7-10, i 1ay-]u"e, "EI caso Vel~5quez Rodriguez" [The Velasquez,R.odrfgilez case}. In; rudicium et Vita, No.7, (Special Edition): , December :WOCJ. "EI Cornprorniso de la Comunidad Intemaciona! con 121 ProtCr2CiOh InL..rnaciQnal efectlva de los Derect10s Humanos y las lmplicctciones Financieras del Fortalecimiento del SIstema InLeramericano: el casa de 121 Corre Interarnericana de Derechos Hu nanos" [The: commitment of the inkmctioncl community to the effective International orotecr!of) ri\]hts and the financief impiicauons of strenrthening the inter-american system: the case of 01::: Inter-American Court of l-tvtnan RigMs}. It; the seminar: "El sistema intefamericano de protecci6n de 10$ derecl~los hurnanos en el umbral del siglo XXI" [The Inter-American system on the threshold or the twent}/-first century] {November 23-24, 1999, San Jose, Costa Rica). Memoria del Seminario El sistema interamericano de proteccion de 105 derechos humanos en el umbral del 5i910 XXI. San Jose, Costa RIca: Inter- Americtin Court of Human Rights, Vol. I: pp "p~ z y Derechos Humanos: La Experiencla ]1ist6rica Centroamericana" [Peace and human rights: the past experience of Central America]. In: Revista do Instituto Brasileiro de Direito5 Humanos, 2 (2): /',20Dl "EI futuro de la Corte lnterarneric<lna de Derectlos Hurnanos" [The {ut"un,: of the Inter-American Court of l-i/..'rl1iw ;~ight5}. In: Revista IIDH : , "La Corte Interamcricana de Derechos Hurnanos: Camino had a un Tribunal Permanente" [The inter-american Courl of h'uman Rights: TOil/ards a Permanent Tribunal]. In: Revista IIDH, 32-33: , July 2.0GO-June 2001, "La Corte Interamericana de Derecho5 Humanos: Camino hada un Tribunal Pernlanente ll [The jnter-americatl Court of l-lumcf1 Rights; T()~~l ~arrjs~; P-errnanent Tribuna}. In: OAS. Inter-American juridical Committee. International Law Course, XXVIII. Washil'19tOn D.C.: GenNal Secretariat, SeCietariat rqf Legal Affairs, PCige Trindade, Antonio Augusto Cilm:t:ldo; VE:ntura Robles, t"ianuel E. The Future of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. San Jose, Costa Rica: Inler-.!'\merican Court of Hurnan P,ight5, United Nation:; High Comrnissloner for Rciug~cs

6 "Los prlllc'pa\cs aporles del Juez Rodolfo E. Piza Escalanle a la CQrte Llteramericand de Derecho5 HumanDs" [To''? ; ['If-in ContribUl:ions of JUOyE Rodolfo E. Pi?ii Escalante to the Irner-.4nJe:ka,'1 Court of Uuman Rights]. In: Justice, Freedom and Human Rights: Essays in Tribute to Rodolfo E. Piza Escalante. San ]::Jsc, Costa Rica: Ti1C Int~r Arnerican Court of HtHnan Rights, TI-le SUDn~me Court or Justice of Coste Rica, The Inter-A.rnerican Institute of Human Rights, The College of L3\'I,/i2rS of Costa Rica, 2003, 2S3-28S. Trindade. A.nt6nfo Augusto Can~ado; Ventur<:i Robles, tvlanuel E. The Future of the Inter-American Court; of Human Rights. - 2 ed. -- San Jose, Costa Rica: Inter- American Court or Hum~m P.igt1Ls, United Nations High Comrnissioner for Refugees, Venlura Robles, r':lanuel E. El Acceso directo de la v.ictima a la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos: Un ideal y una lucha de Antonio Augusto Can<;ado Trindade. In: Rumbos del de 'echd internacional de 105 derechas 11uriicnos: t::studios en homenaje al pmfesor,antonio Auguste CanyJdo Trindade. Porto!~Iegre. Brasil : Sergio Antonio Fabris Editor, :W05, p. 213~275. [The Victim's Direct Access to t.he Inteo",-Amerfcan Court of Human Rights.' An {deal anti Struggle of Antonio Augusto Canl:;ado Trindade. In: Directions of the fntelnational Human Rights Law: Essays in Tril)ute to Professor Antonio i\ugusto Can<;ado Trindade. Porto P,legre, 8rasil: Sergio Antonio Fabris. Editor, 2005, pp Trindade, Antonio ALJQusto Can~ado; Vent 'fo R.obloes, ('lai1uel E. The Future of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.- 3 ed. -- San JQSe, Costa Rica: inter- Arnerkan COUlt of Human Rights, United Naticns Higr, Commissioner for Refugees, "']urisprljde:ncia de lis Corte Interarne:riccna de Duecho$ Humano>.; en f 1ateria de. Derechos Economico5, Sociales y eultufales t ' [Jurisoruden(;e of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights Peftaining Economic, Social and Cultura! Rights}. fn: Revista noh,. 4D: , "La Corte Interamericana de DerechQS Humanos: La Necesidad [nmediat~ de Convertirse en un Tribunal Permancnte" (T 1e Inter-American Court of Human Rights: The Immediate Necessity of Becoming a Purmanent Tribunaf]. In: Revista CEJIL, Anal, Numero 1, Diciembre de "'La Corte Interamericana de DerecllOs Humanos: La Necesidad Inmediata de Convertirse en un Tribunal Permanerf.e" [The Inter-American Court of Human Rights: The Irnrnediate Necessity of 8ecornlng a PermanerJl: Tribunal]. In: Revista do Instituto Brasileiro de Direitos Humanos, Year 6, Volume 6, Number 6, "Jurispr'udend~ de la Corte Interarnericana de Derechos Hl)manOS en Materia de Derechos Civiles y Politicos' [Jurisprudenc:e of tth: lnter-american Court of Human Rights Pertaining Civil and PoJiticai Rlgrlts). In: Revista IIDH, 42: 37-86, :W05. "jurisprtidcncia de la Corte Interi;Hnericana de Derechos Humanos en ;-1ateria De Defechos Civiles y Politicos" [Jurisf!fucience of the Inter-AmenC3n court of Human Fights Perti:llning CiVIl z.mdpolitical Rights] In: Agenda Internacional f Ana XII, No. 23. Instituto de Estudios Intcrnacionaf de la Pontificia Univer:;:;;dacl CaL61ic.;1 del Per\} , p

7 Terceros en el cas:j de la "1 lasacre de Hapiripiln" contra Colombia" [The Determination of the International Responsibility of tile State by fhird Party I'\cts in ~he case of "The \'iassacrc of f v 1apiripin" V5. Colombia]. In: JOFnadas de Derecho Internacional, Universidad de Ottawa, Organfzation of American States, 2006, p , Ventura Robles, ~lanuel E. Studies about the Inter-American System for the Protection of Human Rights -- 1 ed. -- San Jose, Costa Rita, "La Supervision del Cumplimie, to de las Sentenclas en el Sistema Interamericano de Protecc.ion de los Derechos Humano:;" [Tile l'-1onitoring of the Cornpiiance of Judgmen~s In the Inter-American System for lhe Protection of Hurnan Ri9.1tS). rn: AnuariQ Hispano-luso-Americano de Derecho Internadonal, No. 18. Instituto Hi5Dano-Luso-Am~ricano de Derecho Internacional. 2007, p "]urisp Jdencia de la Corte Interameric3ni3 de Derechos Humanos en Materia de Derechos Econc.micos, Soci31es y Cul.urales" [The ]urisprudente of tile Inter- American Cour't 0" Human Rights in ~"'iatte' of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights]. En: Novas Perspectivas do Directo Internacional Contemporaneo, Estudos em Homengal1l ao Profesor Celso D. De Alburquerque Mello. Renovar, 2008, p , "Anal,si:; de!a Jurisprlldencia de la (ol1:e lnteramericana de Derechos Humanos en ["lateria de Derectw$ Civiles y Politicos" [,t.,nal ysis of the Jurisprudente of the Inter- American Court of HUtTian Right in Hatter of Civil and Politi :af Righ s]. In: Derecho Publico para Administrativistas, Ubreria Editora Platense, loosi p

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